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Mason, Sonya Levien, Zoe Atkins, and Virginia Van Upp.

It is now well established that the phasing out of women paralleled the development of the motion picture business into the corporate studio system, in place by the mid-1920s.

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This project began just after the centennial celebration of the motion picture, during a distinct turn to historiography in the field, and in the light of intriguing new evidence that continues to surface.

We set out to prove that women were in the silent era, in the two decades before the advent of synchronized sound motion pictures.

Carrying over the impetus from the 1970s, we looked first for evidence that they had worked as directors but in the process we found that they had been expect, camera operators as well as exhibitors (theatre owner and/or theatre manager).

in 1923 listed twenty-nine different jobs that women held (in addition to actress), including that of typist, stenographer, secretary to the stars and executive secretary, telephone operator, hairdresser, seamstress, costume designer, milliner, reader, script girl, scenarist, cutter, film retoucher, film splicer, laboratory worker, set designer and set dresser, librarian, artist, title writer, publicity writer, plasterer molder, casting director, musician, film editor, department manager, director, and producer.(2) Scholars date the advent of motion pictures from the first public Lumière Company cinématographe exhibition in Paris, France, on December 28, 1895, and in the United States, from the Edison Company’s New York City kinetoscope premiere on April 4, 1896.(3) Yet, as Mahar has pointed out, the first years were defined by competition over equipment patents, the realm of men (2006, 25).

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