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Ones that are necessary include a blade emitter shroud, the emitter matrix and some type of activator to turn the weapon on and off.
Other parts that could be added include handgrip ridges and a blade length adjuster.
The only ways to block the incoming attack of a lightsaber was with a weapon made with material that conducts energy, such as an electrostaff, Z6 riot control baton, or simply another lightsaber.
When used defensively, a Force-sensitive could deflect blaster bolts with a lightsaber, and with skill, could even reflect the shots back toward the shooter or some other target.
Lightsabers were generally used for both offense and defense.