How do scientists use carbon dating
* This graph is called the “hockey stick graph” because the curve looks like a hockey stick laid on its side (click on footnote for graphic illustration). The red part of the curve represents modern instrument-measured surface temperatures, the blue represents proxy data, the black line is a smoothed average of the proxy data, and the gray represents the margin of error with 95% confidence.  * This graph has been the subject of disputes in scientific journals,  congressional hearings,  and legal proceedings including a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit.  Just Facts presently does not have the resources to conclusively assess all the competing claims on this issue, but the facts we have verified are as follows: medieval warmth, and shows the following graph of temperature changes for the Northern Hemisphere over the past 1,300 years.
This graph, which is called a spaghetti graph, is constructed with data from 12 proxy studies spliced with instrument-measured surface temperatures (the dark black line): * Click here for facts about the IPCC’s practice of splicing proxy studies with instrument-measured surface temperatures.
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One of these was a series of buoys, each containing thermometers located ten feet above the water and at one foot below the water.