Mandating effective treatment for drug offenders
And investing in prison treatment pays off quickly.
(Comparatively, only three percent were under the influence of cocaine or crack alone and no other drugs, and one percent was under the influence of heroin alone.) Although the connection between alcohol and violence is complex and experts disagree about exactly how it operates, a number of plausible psychological and biological mechanisms have been suggested.
First, being drunk may provide an alibi for normally proscribed behaviors.
Furthermore, these findings are based on a particularly difficult population: the 1 million in state prisons, which house three-fifths of all inmates and the most serious offenders.
Drugs and alcohol are implicated in all types of crimes.
As conceptualized by Paul Goldstein of the University of Illinois at Chicago, drug-related violence takes three types: the systemic violence of drug-dealing organizations; the economic-compulsive violence that results from securing money to purchase drugs; and psychopharmacological violence, which is caused by the excitability, irritability, aggression, or paranoia associated with the physiological action of drugs.